d-limonene hash oil ?

Discussion in 'Concentrates & Processing' started by Ever after, Mar 22, 2012.

  1. Ever after

    Ever after Active Farmer

    d-limonene used to make hash oil

    can someone please expand on this! and expand all our minds please?

    is this just someone selling ether hash oil as d-limonene hash oil?
  2. leadsled

    leadsled Well-Known Farmer

    PureGold: our core active ingredient

    TetraLabs is the culmination of a years-long project to explore methods of producing ultra-pure cannabinoids by recycling cannabis plant materials that were unsalable by growers. We demonstrated feasibility three years ago, but could not produce sufficient quantities for patients beyond the trial groups1. We then spent several more years refining our process, learning how to make sufficient quantities and establishing a collective to enable more patients to benefit.
    Cannabis plant material contains cannabinoids, as well as 450–600 other compounds — most of which do not contribute to desired medical effects. Plant material is also rife with potential toxins and pathogens such as insecticides and fungicides, molds, spores, bacteria and viruses, not to mention insects, parasites and their eggs. TetraLabs isolates the cannabinoids and leaves all these problems behind.
    To accomplish this, farmers grow cannabis and provide essential oils — commonly known as "hash oil" — which they extract from their cannabis. TetraLabs refines these essential oils until the final product consists of 95% pure cannabinoids.
    [​IMG]
    Our purification process uses only natural methods to selectively remove the unwanted components from the essential oils. We call the resulting purified cannabinoids PureGold. Nothing is added. Pure Gold contains only compounds originally present in cannabis plants. The non-cannabinoid 5% of Pure Gold consists of cannabis compounds known to be harmless and, in some cases, beneficial.
    [​IMG]
    We add three food-grade components to make the final products. Grape seed oil and alcohol serve as buffers in our orally ingestible softgels and sublingual spray. We add a touch of limonene, a naturally occurring terpene in cannabis, to the pure cannabinoids in smokable PureGold.
    We welcome you to review a more detailed look at PureGold technology.


    http://tetralabs.com/puregold_overview.php
    http://tetralabs.com/puregold_technical.php
    monkeybone likes this.
  3. leadsled

    leadsled Well-Known Farmer

    PureGold: a detailed look at our proprietary process for creating pure cannabinoids

    PureGold's exact composition is best exemplified by a gas chromatogram. The following typical chromatogram shows everything that is in PureGold. This particular batch has over 95% cannabinoids. The remaining 4% or so consists of plant waxes and sesquiterpenes.
    [​IMG]
    A gas chromatograph does not record very volatile and non-volatile compounds such as cellulose. However, in our case, these compounds have already been removed.
    [​IMG]
    By comparison, a chromatogram of cannabis plant material shows very many more peaks, and the cannabinoids are — by far — the minority. The highest ∆9-THC concentration available in plant material is 21%.

    The Cannabinoids
    The THC family in the chromatogram contains 84% total THC of various types. This includes ∆6-, ∆8- and ∆9-THC, along with ∆6-, ∆8- and ∆9-THCV. The actual amount of ∆9-THC in this batch is 74%. Current batches reach 78%. The peaks to the left of the ∆9-THC peak are THCV isomers. These isomers of THC vary greatly in their psychoactive effects.Research into the therapeutic benefits of trace cannabinoids like THCV, ∆-8 and ∆-6 THC, CBC and CBG is ongoing. All show physiological activity.
    The CBD section shows the amount of cannabidiol. CBD is a sought-after cannabinoid due to its proven medical benefits. For example, CBD and THC are the active ingredients in Sativex, the multiple sclerosis drug developed by GW Pharma. Even though it is not psychoactive by itself, CBD has a powerful influence on the effects of THC even when the CBD content is 1% or less. CBD is the reason that indica has a different affect than sativa. We also include Cannabichromene (CBC) in the CBD family. CBC has reported therapeutic effects as an anti-inflammatory. Like CBD, it moderates the effects of THC and activates the CB2 receptor. This chromatogram shows about 2% CBD and CBC.
    The CBN family consists of degradation products that result from the oxidation of any of the various THC isomers as well as CBD. The CBN family represents 7% in this sample. CBN is not psychoactive but may have therapeutic properties. In addition to CBN, we also include Cannabigerol (CBG) in this family, which is to the right of the THC peak.

    Non-Cannabinoids
    Waxes: Plants produce a wax cuticle to prevent excessive transpiration of moisture (drying). In larger amounts, cannabis plant wax resembles candle wax but is more slippery and translucent. Another waxy constituent is squalene, a tri-terpene. It has useful anti-oxidant properties and may help prevent cancer. It is a minor constituent in most vegetable oils. The waxes are long-chain hydrocarbons and obviously not psychoactive. We generally find around 3% wax and sometimes a bit less. We remove the plant wax for production of PureGold with Limonene.
    Sesquiterpenes could also be removed, but we currently include them since they appear to have therapeutic value. Cannabis contains many terpinoids. In fact, cannabinoids are terpenoids. Terpenoids serve many functions in plants. For example, as amounts of terpenes vary in Cannabis, so does its fragrance. Sesquiterpenes represent an important constituent of most essential oils.
  4. leadsled

    leadsled Well-Known Farmer

    Complying with California law
    We designed our process both to achieve an extremely high level of purity and also to comply with California law, which prohibits the use of chemical extraction or synthesis for controlled substances. Purification without prohibited chemicals posed a challenge, but we developed other methods over several years to address each undesirable contaminant group. We believe our process is patentable but have not filed a patent disclosure, pending further clarification of the applicable laws.
    The legal details: California code section 11379.6(a) prohibits "chemical extraction" of controlled substances but does not define the term "chemicals." However, the Court ruled in The People v. Bergen that resin can be "physically extracted" (e.g. pressure) or by "leaching the resin from the plant material by dissolving it in a nonchemical…extractor, such as butter." The unfortunate lack of legal precision leaves everyone guessing. However, the Court did bless physical methods such as pressure (and by extension other physical methods such as centrifugation) as well as extraction ("leaching") by butter. By extension, this might also include similar non-chemical, food-grade solvents, such as carbon dioxide, vegetable oil, glycerin and orange oil (d-limonene); however, neither the law or court decision adequately defines this.
    Our refining process uses no chemicals (as defined above) whatsoever. Our only consumables are added to formulate PureGold for pharmaceutical uses. Our soft-gels contain gelatin and glycerin in the capsule, and grape seed oil to aid absorption of the cannabinoids. Our sublingual spray contains Everclear (food-grade alcohol), used to enhance the absorption of cannabinoids through the oral mucosa, and a bit of peppermint oil for flavoring. Our PureGold contains 5% food-grade d-limonene — a terpene that occurs naturally in cannabis. We add absolutely nothing else in the PureGold process or to any PureGold product.

    Making PureGold
    Many cannabis dispensaries feature cannabis concentrates alongside their cannabis flower products. Concentrates are commonly known as "hash" or "hash oil." The PureGold process starts with commercial "hash oil," or cannabis resin. We remove solid materials such as mold, insect parts, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. We also remove man-made impurities such as pesticides, fungicides and herbicides. And we remove undesirable plant products such as fats, waxes, flavonoids, pectins, chlorophyll and tar. We select certain classes of terpenes and terpenoids that are known to have therapeutic effects, and reject others that have no therapeutic value. What's left is a highly purified concentrate that consists of 95% cannabinoids in their natural proportions and 5% therapeutic sesquiterpenes.
    Even when the refining process has been completed, the result still is not ready to be called PureGold. As a final step, we have each lot rigorously tested by independent laboratories. Only after it has passed our demanding quality control screening can our key ingredient bear the name PureGold. We don't just claim to make pharmaceutical-grade cannabis products.
    The following diagram shows an idealized view of common cannabis flower contents along with their relative proportions. The active ingredients — cannabinoids and sesquiterpenes — comprise less than 20% of the total. All the rest is extraneous material.
    [​IMG]
    Cannabis concentrates are made from either flowers or leaves. First, the cannabis is dried and screened. Then the solvent is added, dissolving the resin and leaving a cellulose residue behind. The solvent, now bearing the dissolved resin, may be treated further to remove more undesirable components. Finally, the solvent is removed by some form of evaporation.
    Common solvents include butter, vegetable oil, glycerin, alcohol, carbon dioxide, butane and hexane. Along with the desired cannabinoids, every solvent also extracts undesirable constituents, such as tar, chlorophyll, terpenes, waxes, flavonoids and sugars. That's why "hash oils" smell funny, taste funny and leave a substantial residue after heating. These non-therapeutic impurities also have physiological side-effects, such as "cotton mouth" and a "dopey" feeling of mental confusion.
    In other words, some undesirable constituents go into solution in the solvent and are unavoidably carried forth into the essential oil. Hash oils generally contain around 50% cannabinoids along with 50% extraneous compounds. We remove those extraneous compounds.
    The following diagram shows the results of this initial extraction step. Notice that most of the extraneous material is no longer present, and that the cannabinoids are now about 50% of the total.
    [​IMG]
    A closer look
    We identify undesirable compounds in the provided essential oils and use our proprietary processes to remove them. Our processes address each contaminant group one by one until only the cannabinoids remain. In all, TetraLabs' processes contain about forty steps. Purification takes about three weeks, utilizing advanced equipment and skilled personnel.
    Using only heat, pressure, centrifugation and other physical methods, we isolate and remove each of the groups of undesirable compounds shown in the diagram above of essential oils. Only the cannabinoids and trace amounts of sesquiterpenes and pigments remain, as shown in the following diagram.
    [​IMG]
    Achieving purity
    After removing all contaminants and revealing the pure cannabinoids, the end product weighs at least 50% less than the essential oils with which we started. In the process, we accumulate collections of tar-like substances, wax and terpenes.
    The final product that emerges from the TetraLabs process is a pale yellow, crystal-clear, viscous oil containing only cannabinoids. Its consistency is somewhat thicker than molasses but thins down to a runny liquid at about 160˚F. When warmed, PureGold has a pleasant, sweet aroma from the sesquiterpenes.
    The color and clarity of PureGold attest to its purity. Moreover, when a few drops of PureGold are evaporated on a glass plate or in a new vaporizer, no residue remains. The glass appears completely clean. This test yields substantial charred residue with any other cannabis concentrate.
    Regardless of the material given to us, finished batches of PureGold are nearly identical. More specifically, the relative percentages of the various cannabinoids vary insubstantially from batch to batch.
    El Cerebro likes this.
  5. treehugger

    treehugger Farmer

    I assume it is the last vestiges of their solvent of choice. some use butane, some alchol, they use the natural terpene limone.
    Can't really bitch about that...
  6. squiggly

    squiggly Well-Known Farmer

    Limonene is a non-polar liquid and can be used to extract the target compounds from plant material--simple as that. I don't know why you'd want to use ether instead and call it limonene because ether is usually more expensive when it is the required purity for extractions and its exponentially more dangerous to work with.
  7. Mr. Molecule

    Mr. Molecule Farmer

    Except that it's not, where cannabis is concerned (I've seen it used very effectively for alkaloid extraction, but for cannabinoids it's different).

    I sure wish it were, because d-limonene would be the ultimate solvent: non-chemical (arguably), natural, botanical, non-toxic.

    Problem is, it really doesn't evaporate the way things like butane and hexane or even alcohols do. Limonene leaves a sticky residue and never fully evaporates unless it is alone in a super-thin layer, like when wiped onto a flat surface. If you just pour some in a puddle, days later it will be a smear of sticky residue.

    A friend tells me that the news he's hearing from clubs is that supercritical CO2 oil is the top dog product. That's neat, but those of us who can't afford a $40,000 machine to do it cant join the fun and all other solvent methods are beginning to get looked upon with distaste (at least at the clubs where he does biz).
    hammalamma likes this.
  8. squiggly

    squiggly Well-Known Farmer

    Noted--I've experienced something similar to this before in an extraction.

    I've never handled limonene in any considerable quantity, so was unaware of its characteristics. Presumably you could evaporate it in an ultra-fine layer though--as you mention. I don't think that's beyond the scope of what I've seen cannabis extractors do, it may take investment in equipment and building costs but I can imagine a machine that would do it and I'm, again, terrible at engineering :)
  9. El Cerebro

    El Cerebro Well-Known Farmer

    Oh, just give it a min and there'll be somebody showing up here to tell you otherwise..

    Based on what you said mr mol, that kind of explains why limonene-heavy strains as bho leave that greasy residue when vaporizing at lower temps? Anybody else noticed this, moreso than maybe the dry-waxy type that seems to evaporate away (or whatever). Is this the film that sometimes floats on top when winterizing?

    Wish I was in a place to try puregold, looks like some well thought-out stuff.
    leadsled likes this.
  10. Hashmasta-Kut

    Hashmasta-Kut Hashish Moderator Staff Member

    but its made from run of the mill product to start with. that seems an odd starting point.
    sealed138 and neck like this.
  11. El Cerebro

    El Cerebro Well-Known Farmer

    I meant that from an academic point of view, obviously the best concentrates come from the best pre-extract materials. But for what they're actually doing to it, and assuming their tech works as described, it seems pretty logical to start with leftover junk that isn't useable for other purposes. It's more of a processed product than I've ever experienced, and I'm guessing pretty consistent? That's why I'd like to taste-test it. Lead are you involved or just pasting from their lit?
  12. Ever after

    Ever after Active Farmer

    you do a d-limonene wash with 10 grams of oil? what if the oil is rock solid wouldn't making pure gold be back stepping? that didnt make sense it seemed super loopy. are you talking about Thc tartrate ?

    thc gold? hash back stepping?
  13. Ever after

    Ever after Active Farmer

    this ruined my thread?
  14. leadsled

    leadsled Well-Known Farmer

    Welcome, Interesting stuff. Wish I knew how to make it.


    ctrl + v
    The Taste is good and the product is very clean like described. Works really well in omnicron.

    How do you figure? Are you a selfish person?

    You are getting info straight from the source, rather than some mis-information spewed forth by someone that probably does not have real life experience on the subject...
    baba G likes this.
  15. baba G

    baba G bean sprouts are tasty Staff Member

    All your getting is great information and responses, how is this a ruined thread? What would be the result of this not be ruined? Nobody answering you??
    leadsled likes this.
  16. El Cerebro

    El Cerebro Well-Known Farmer


    Yes, I've been testing omicron cartridges too and they can be rather difficult to load with thicker oils/waxes. I also don't like the need to heat the cartridge and filler funnel apparatus during the pita fill process (decarbs the oil, boils off terpenes prematurely), and their company guy/owner who advertises here just does spam-and-run without addressing questions/concerns. Bought some of his carts anyway cause they were only thing available (captive audience), but looking for a better solution and company with better attitude asap.

    From what I've read on other forums, something like puregold is the ticket to making these things work better (or other oil processed to similar viscosity and definitely winterized/filtered) - hence my interest in understanding their process. Also tetra's softgel w/tit packaging is ingeniously simple, would like to know more about that process too, seems ideal for thin extracts in general with little waste and less mess for the patient.

    Limonene in small amounts could be an interesting add-in for daytime use especially, along with perhaps myrcene, bcp, and numerous others. The vapor-pen/e-cig format with its current surge in tech updates (temp/voltage control, reasonable battery life, tiny form factor) is a real game-changer for a lot of us who travel or struggle for a convenient inhalation method to use in 'professional' or other awkward environments. FYI, for those just looking into this, a domestically made product called thermo-vape seems to really be the market leader, although much pricier than the basic omicron and other rebranded chinese e-cigs.

    Hey Everafter, I've enjoyed some of your other posts, and glad you're contributing. Give this a chance, cause communication styles vary a lot here, and I know everyone replying shares your interests. Plus you can steer the conversation any direction you want, that's the beauty of starting a thread. Feel free to say 'hey El and Lead, interesting tangents there but I'd like to hear more discussion specifically about...'
  17. Ohiofarmer

    Ohiofarmer Well-Known Farmer

    D-limonene is a refined terpene, which adds flavour and smokability. It is what tetra labs use to thin down their pure gold, add flavour,and to increase it smokability and also is what helps to allow their oils to burn cleaner without the greasyness that comes after the first light of a hit of oil. Hope this helps take it easy guys.

    p:s: you can buy d-limonene at health food store that sell whole extracts. It's generally extracted from the skin of citrus fruits.
    hammalamma likes this.
  18. Ever after

    Ever after Active Farmer

    thanks ohio farmer!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    yeah it was kinda messing with the thread because the intention of this part of thc farmer the oil threads was not to sell oil products and make people chase their tails? when this was more of just a learning place not a marketing place HMK methods are not marketing :p

    many people who obtain thc gold say the complete opposite of this " also is what helps to allow their oils to burn cleaner without the greasyness that comes after the first light of a hit of oil. Hope this helps take it easy guys." -ohiofarmer

    most persons have said the thc gold smells like petrol products so does the d-limonene help mask the nasty ether smell?

    what i would like to specifically hear about? the Hash Oil part.............................. ?
  19. Ever after

    Ever after Active Farmer

    i want my own thc gold from my own strains I dont want to have to leave amsterdam and i dont want to pay for something i can do my self from high quality stuff and not trash to stash like led was saying in that marketing thingy ?
  20. Ever after

    Ever after Active Farmer

    so how do you make thc gold?