Complete Guide to Cannabis Terpenes

Complete Guide to Cannabis Terpenes

Complete guide to terpenes information charts cannabinoids


Cannabis terpenes help make our favorite cannabis strains what they are. Cannabis wouldn’t smell or taste so good if not for terpenes. Terpenes are sometimes called terpenoids or referred to as terps for short. Not only do terpenes influence taste and smell, but they also come with a wide array of potential health benefits. To begin to learn about cannabis terpenes, there are a few words that you’ll want to familiarize yourself with. Let’s look at these words together so we have a clear understanding of them moving forward. This will help facilitate a clearer picture of cannabis terpenes, the role they play, and the systems they work with in the human body.

  • Terpenes: Aromatic compounds present in many different varieties of plants. Terpenes play an important role in determining the taste and smell of cannabis.
  • Flavonoids: Flavonoids are similar to terpenes. They play an important role in how cannabis taste and smells and are believed to have their own unique therapeutic properties
  • Cannabinoids: A group of plant-based compounds found in cannabis such as THC, CBD, CBN, CBG and others. There are more than a hundred different cannabinoids found in cannabis that we are aware of with information easily accessible on only about a dozen or so of them.
  • Endocannabinoid System: Sometimes called the ECS, is a part of every mammal on the planet and some insects that works with cannabinoid receptors, terpenes, and cannabinoids to help regulate cellular functions working towards achieving and maintaining homeostasis.
  • Cannabinoid Receptors: The most common of the cannabinoid receptors are the CB1 and CB2 receptors. It is believed that terpenes may influence the amount of cannabinoids absorbed by receptors.
Terpenes not only playing important role in the human body they also play a vital role in the life cycle of plants. In plants, terpenes can work to repel predators or attract pollinators. You might say terpenes are a plant's natural defense mechanism. Many animals have a heightened sense of smell. They will only forage on vegetation that attracts them. Should that vegetation have a foul or unattractive aromatic property, it will most likely be avoided by predatory foragers.

Many animals that forage in the wild instinctively know the aroma of skunk and for the most part to avoid it. A lot of insects such as mosquitoes avoid pine, making pine oil a perfect companion for insect repellent outdoors. Another common fragrance many people enjoy is lavender. It is used in many soothing aspects such as bath bombs, lotions, and even perfumes. Lavender is also known to repel moths, mosquitoes, please, and other types of insects.

One thing all of these smells have in common is terpenes. Lavender gets the biggest part of its aroma and therapeutic attributes from a terpene called linalool. Pine trees get their strong aroma from terpenes called alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. The aroma of skunk comes from a terpene called myrcene. If something has a smell or an aroma to it, it has terpenes.

Terpenes like those found in lavender and pine, or even skunks are not only meant to create pleasure and dissatisfaction by their aroma and taste, but they also work at promoting a healthy life cycle for the vast amount of vegetation containing them like cannabis. In the past, one specific area of interest in the identification of cannabis terpenes was to help "improve canine training in illicit drug detection" according to research published on the NCBI. Terpenes are broken down into 5 groups as follows.

  • Monoterpenes are found in the essential oils of many plants including fruits, vegetables, herbs, and cannabis. Research suggests monoterpenes help promote a healthy respiratory system and hold many other potentially therapeutic properties like being an antiseptic, an antibiotic and an antiviral. They’re also natural air deodorizers and purifiers.
  • Diterpenes are C20 compounds based on four isoprene (C5H8) units found in animals, bacteria, fungi, and plants. Diterpenes show promise at helping to combat cardiovascular disease.
  • Triterpenes are specialized metabolites. They play an important role in plant development and defense mechanisms.
  • Tetraterpenes are orange, yellow, or red fat-soluble animal or plant pigments called carotenoids are classified as tetraterpenes.
  • Sesquiterpenes have three isoprene units. They’re the second most important group of active compounds found in essential oils from plants. Sesquiterpenes may play an important role in human health.
When it comes to terpenes, people can have a lot of questions. They commonly want to know the answers to questions like, are terpenes important? Will terpenes get me high? Are terpenes legal to purchase? Where do terpenes come from? Is there a difference between cannabis terpenes and other terpenes? These are all good questions and ones we intend to answer for you. Let's start our journey by learning a little more about the discovery of cannabis terpenes and what roles they play.

The Discovery of Cannabis Terpenes and Their Importance​

What would the world be like if we didn't know what terpenes were? What would cannabis be like if we didn't know what terpenes were? Wait just a second, if that were the case, all cannabis would be dirt weed. It would be grown in a very poor environment under poor conditions and produce poor results. We wouldn't even know these conditions would be poor if we didn't know what terpenes were. The discovery of terpenes plays an important role in the effectiveness of cannabis.

Terpenes affect people in many different ways. They help us relax, they relieve stress, tension, anxiety, they help alleviate irritating conditions with skin, and much more. Cannabis plants are very rich in a special type of terpene. Terpenes from cannabis plants also contain Trace amounts of cannabinoids. This is why cannabis-derived terpenes are not available for sale online. They are tightly regulated as a controlled substance and are only available in stores that have legal cannabis markets.

Terpenes are produced by cannabis plants in their trichomes. Cannabis has many different individual terpenes that combine together in different amounts to create different profiles. In combination with cannabinoids, terpenes are attributed to a wide variety of medicinal attributes associated with cannabis. Some people believe that terpenes help play an important role in the Entourage effect while others disagree. The one thing most people agree on though is that terpenes do have medical properties.

They range from working as an anti-inflammatory to an antibacterial, pain reliever, and analgesic, and more. The history of terpenes in organic chemistry starts with Otto Wallach who is considered the founder of terpene chemistry. His research began in 1884 earning him the Nobel prize in chemistry. People have been aware of terpenes since we have been aware of smell and taste. However, we were not aware of what terpenes were capable of or even what they were responsible for.

Since 1884 we have learned a lot about terpenes. Terpenes work to attract pollinators to plants as well as to protect them from predators. They also provide many different therapeutic potentials for humans. Terpenes are found in basically anything with a smell and taste. Cannabis is a unique plant and that it has a wide variety of terpenes in concentrated levels. Some terpenes are more prevalent than others and found in a higher abundance. It is believed that cannabis developed a unique terpene profile over the history of its evolution to combat conditions of predators and climate change.

Cannabis isn't the only thing with terpenes. Pretty much all plants have terpenes. Many of the allergic reactions people have today come from products such as fabric softener, soaps, or other fragrant items come from terpene reactions. If you find that you have allergies to specific smells it is a good idea to find out what terpenes are dominant and try to avoid them. Terpenes hold a wide potential for helping people with many different things. When it comes to terpenes, remember, there is a difference between terpenes that come from cannabis and terpenes that come from other plants, though they may effect you very similarly.

The Difference Between Cannabis Terpenes and Other Botanical Terpenes​

Rollo candy wrappers on your teeth might give you the appearance of a gold grill but it's not the same as actually having a gold grill. The same can be said about terpenes. You might have linalool, myrcene, and pinene in there but if it came from mangoes, lavender, and Pine trees, it's not exactly cannabis. Terpenes aren't always terpenes. There are cannabis-derived terpenes and botanical-derived terpenes.

Terpenes these days found in cannabis don't always come from cannabis. Sadly, many cannabis terpenes are destroyed or removed during extraction processes to create distillates, tinctures, and other forms of concentrates. These terpenes are most typically replaced with other botanical terpenes. There is a difference between cannabis derived terpenes and other botanical derived terpenes. Terpenes that come from cannabis have different laws governing their regulatory structure then botanical terpenes from plants such as lavender, rose, or peppercorns.

However, in many instances botanical derived terpenes are used to replace natural cannabis terpenes that are destroyed during an extraction process. Cannabis derived terpenes may also contain very small levels of other compounds present in cannabis. This means they can have a cannabinoid profile containing THC and other compounds hence the strict regulatory structure and laws for cannabis-derived terpenes. Botanical derived terpenes or terpenes that do not come from cannabis are much cheaper to produce and easier to formulate for consistency.

Cannabis terpenes cost much more in comparison and nearly legality is very tricky. If cannabis terpenes come from Cannabis that has more than 0.3% THC, they are illegal and only allowed in applicable markets under certain restrictions. They say that botanical derived terrapins can be used to consistently mimic specific cannabis strains. They are much cheaper and because they are not produced from cannabis plants, they are not illegal. The big question is, do you want your cannabis to be 100% cannabis or are you okay with it having a little mix of other botanical derived terpenes?

Studies and Research on the Potential Medicinal and Therapeutic Attributes of Terpenes?​

More about the effectiveness of terpenes could be understood if only marijuana prohibition didn't exist. There have been more studies conducted on psychedelics than cannabinoids. When it comes to terpenes, there has been a lot of research done on them. Sadly, much of this research was not conducted on cannabis-derived terpenes. It wasn't until over the recent years, that research surrounding cannabis was able to take place. Even when research is conducted and studies are done, the quality of the cannabis allowed to be researched by the government in many places is questionable.

With cannabis legalization happening in more places around the world these days, the focus on cannabis terpenes has shifted from illicit drug detection to therapeutic and potential medicinal attributes of cannabis terpenes. Terpenes as you can see, are very good at promoting healthy plants as well as happy people. There's a lot of research around the therapeutic attributes of terpenes. Much of this research supports a plethora of benefits. Essential oils and aromatherapy are based off the aromatic and ingestible properties of terpenes.

Cannabis terpenes are believed to work in conjunction with cannabinoid receptors located throughout the endocannabinoid system. Some research suggests that cannabis terpenes may help to influence and initially determine the amount of cannabinoids absorbed by receptors.

The Most Common Terpenes Found in Cannabis​

We currently have discovered over 150 different terpenes in the cannabis plant. More terpenes could stand to be discovered as cannabis legalization progresses opening the doors for cannabis research. Current research on cannabis has been extremely limited due to the legalities of cannabis in many places around the world. Of the more than 150 terpenes found in cannabis, researchers only have a somewhat clear picture of a handful of them.

They say that terpenes from cannabis plants lack repeatability according to science and industry. This basically means that it is very hard to get two plants to taste the same or smell the same. This is where a lot of people turn to botanical terpenes for consistency not to mention they save a lot of money in the process. These terpenes do not have the same effects as other terpenes or they would have been regulated accordingly. Cannabis derived terpenes contain trace amounts of compounds such as cannabinoids that make them different from botanical derived terpenes. Let's explore some of the most common terpenes found in cannabis, their characteristics, and their potential therapeutic and medicinal properties starting with quite possibly one of the most popular terpenes in cannabis, myrcene.

Myrcene​

Myrcene cannabis terpene chart properties


Myrcene is not only quite possibly the most popular terpene bounding cannabis it is also the most abundant. A lot of cannabis is rich in myrcene with this terpene making up as much as 65% of a total terpene profile for certain cannabis strains. It is said to be the terpene responsible for the aroma of Skunk cannabis. Myrcene has an aroma that is described as being earthy and musky. It is also described as grape-like and fruity. Mangoes are a fruit that is rich in myrcene. It is believed that by consuming this fruit 45 minutes to 1 hour before smoking cannabis that the effects of THC will become stronger. This is believed to happen because myrcene increases the amount of cannabinoids absorbed by cb1 and cb2 receptors. Myrcene is believed to be responsible for producing sedative-like effects in cannabis as well as helping to relieve chronic pain and reduce inflammation. Myrcene is found in higher levels in many varieties of indica cannabis strains such as 9 Pound Hammer, Blue Dream, OG Kush, Granddaddy Purple, and many others.

Linalool​

Linalool cannabis terpene chart


Linalool follows up behind myrcene being responsible for the largest part of how cannabis smells. It is found in other plants such as coriander, mint, cinnamon, and lavender. Linalool is known for having floral and spicy aromas and flavors associated with it. It is also one of the most common and abundant terpenes found in the majority of cannabis strains. This terpene is known to help people relax and is often considered a sedative. It's known to help with seizures, insomnia, arthritis, depression, and more. If you're looking for higher levels of this terpene in cannabis strains, look for strains like LA Confidential, Lavender, Amnesia Haze, OG Shark, and others.

Limonene​

Limonene cannabis terpene chart


Limonene follows behind myrcene as the second most abundant cannabis terpene. Although it Falls in second place, all cannabis strains do not have limonene. Disturbing is found in citrus fruits like lemons and produces a citrusy aroma. It is used in the cosmetic industry as well as, residential and commercial cleaners. Disturbing is believed to help reduce stress and improve mood. Research suggests limonene holds antibacterial and antifungal properties. If you're looking to find cannabis strains rich in limonene, as a rule of thumb try to find strains that have the name sour or lemon in them like Super Lemon Haze, Sour Diesel, Lemon Kush, or others. Other strains that don't have the name sour or lemon in them like Durban poison, and Jack Herer are also rich in limonene.

Caryophyllene​

B caryophyllene cannabis terpene chart


Caryophyllene is a peppery spicy terpene common in spices like cinnamon, basil, rosemary, oregano, cloves, and black pepper. This terpene is believed to be the only one with the ability to bind with cannabinoid receptors. Caryophyllene binds with CB2 receptors making it a versatile ingredient for creams and topical lotions looking to offer anti-inflammatory effects. Is terpene works as in analgesic, and anti-inflammatory, and has anxiolytic properties. Usually, people who love this particular terpene smother their food in pepper. It is also believed this caryophyllene may help to reduce how much alcohol someone voluntarily intakes based on studies conducted on mice. If you're looking for strains rich in caryophyllene, you may want to try Girl Scout Cookies, Platinum cookies, Royal Cookies, OG Kush, Chemdawg, Sour Diesel, Skywalker, Super Silver Haze, or others.

Alpha-Pinene​

A pinene cannabis terpene chart properties


Alpha-Pinene and Beta-Pinene are known as the "twin terpenes". These two terpenes are most commonly associated with pine trees though they are found in parsley, basil, rosemary, orange peels, and of course, cannabis. Both alpha and beta pining are known to work as an anti-inflammatory, a pain reliever, and are also believed to help improve respiratory functions such as difficulties with breathing associated with asthma. The twin terpenes are found in strains like Blue Dream, Romulan, Strawberry Cough, Pineapple Express, Critical Cheese, Romulan, Blue Dream, Island Sweet Skunk, and many others.

Humulene​



Humulene is a terpene commonly associated with hops. It is also common in black pepper, sage, and clove as well as cannabis. It carries a spicy earthy Woody profile and is known as an appetite suppressant making it a potential companion for weight loss. It is also said to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. If you're looking to consume this terpene look for strains such as Girl Scout cookies, Skywalker OG, White Widow, Sour Diesel, Headband, Death Star, or others.

Trans-Nerolidol​


Trans-Nerolidol is a terpene common in tea tree oil, jasmine, and lemongrass. It Carrie's notes of apple, lemon, and rose tones with hints of citrus and wood. This terpene is known to work as an antifungal, and anti-cancer, and antioxidant, and antimicrobial, and to have antiparasitic properties. If you're looking to get a little more Trans-Nerolidol in your life, look for cannabis strains such as Skywalker OG, Sweet Skunk, or Jack Herer.

Delta 3 Carene​

Delta 3 carene cannabis terpene chart


Delta 3 Carene can be found in Bell peppers, basil, rosemary, pine, and cedar. It has a sweet Woody smell similar to that of cypress. It shows medicinal properties of helping to heal broken bones making it an excellent terpene for those suffering from fibromyalgia, arthritis, and osteoporosis. It is also said to help stimulate memory and to help with memory retention. If this sounds like the terpene you're after, look for cannabis strains such as AK47, Super Silver Haze, Jack Herer, and others.

Terpineol​

Terpinolene cannabis terpene chart properties


Terpineol is a very floral terpene. Its aroma is similar to apple blossoms or lilacs with just a touch of lemon. It's commonly used in many perfumes and foods as well as throughout the cosmetic industry. The flavor profile is similar to mint. It is known to be a very relaxing terpene said to work as an antibiotic, and antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory, and more. It is commonly associated with heavy Indica strains of cannabis that can be found in many different varieties of sativa and hybrid cannabis strains as well. If you're looking for terpineol, check out cannabis strains like OG Kush, Girl Scout Cookies, Blue Dream, Fire OG, Jack Herer, and others.

Camphene​

Camphene cannabis terpene chart


Camphene smells like a damp wet forest with hints of musky earth, woody tones, and damp fir needles and is oftentimes mistaken with myrcene. It is often added to vitamin C to boost its antioxidant power. Camphene also shows great potential when it comes to lowering triglyceride and cholesterol levels associated with cardiovascular disease. It holds antibiotic, antioxidant, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Common cannabis strains that camphene is found in are Mendocino Purps, Ghost OG, ACDC, Banana Kush, and others.

Eucalyptol​

Eucalyptol cannabis terpene chart


Eucalyptol is widely used throughout medicine and cosmetics. It is known to slow the growth of fungus and bacteria as well as provide pain relief. It tastes similar to mint and is only found in very miniscule amounts in cannabis. Some research shows it holds promising benefits at helping with Alzheimer's disease. Eucalyptol is believed to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that could help with conditions such as pancreatitis, colon damage, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and others. If this sounds like the terpene you've been looking for and you would like to find a cannabis strain that has a lot of it, look for varieties of cannabis such as GMO Cookies, Super Silver Haze, Bubba Kush, Headband, Girl Scout Cookies, and others.

Alpha-Bisabolol​

A bisabolol cannabis terpene chart


Alpha-Bisabolol has a very floral aroma and is found in chamomile flowers. Its primary use has been the cosmetic industry but as of recent, it has caught the attention of the medical community. Many believe this terpene can work at helping to treat bacterial infections working as an antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-irritation. If you're looking for cannabis strains rich in Alpha-Bisabolol, try varieties such as ACDC, Pink Kush, Headband, OG shark, or Harle-Tsu.

Valencene​

Valencene cannabis terpene chart properties


Valencene is a terpene that received its name from Valencia oranges because of the amount of the terpene present in them. It produces a citrusy aroma and sweet flavor. This terpene like pinene makes a great insect repellent and is commonly used in cleaning, cosmetics, and personal care products. It's considered to be an anti-allergy, and anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant, and a bronchodilator. If you're looking to get some more of this terpene in your life you will want to go after cannabis strains like Clementine, or Jilly Bean.

Borneol​

Borneol cannabis terpene chart


Borneol is a terpene with a minty aroma. It is found in plants such as camphor, mint, rosemary, and of course, cannabis. The minty aroma carries over to the flavor profile as well. Barney all is said to be great at helping prevent disease by working as an insect repellent fighting away mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, and more. Disturbing is known to cause irritation to the throat and nose and exposure can lead to vomiting, nausea, headaches, and dizziness. It is believed to reduce pain and inflammation and is used by Chinese herbalists to help treat coughs, colds, and bronchitis. If you're looking for this particular terpene, try cannabis strains such as k13 Haze, Golden Haze, Amnesia Haze, or other varieties of the Haze family.

Geraniol​

Geraniol cannabis terpene chart


Geraniol is a terpene present in tobacco and lemons. It is known for its fruity-floral aroma and flavor profile that resembles peaches plums and Rose grass. It is an additive used in body lotions, creams, and other aromatic bath products. It is believed to work as an antioxidant and a neuroprotective. Cannabis strains rich in this terpene or Afghani, Island Sweet Skunk, Master Kush, Amnesia Haze, Great White Shark, and others.

Ocimene​

Ocimene cannabis terpene chart


Ocimene is a terpene that provides a woody sweet profile. It is said to work as an anticonvulsant, an anti-tumor, and an antifungal. It is also shown potential at helping as a decongestant. This particular terpene can be found in cannabis strains such as Clementine, Golden Goat, Sour Diesel, Space Queen, and others.

Potential Terpene Benefits Supported by Clinical Trials​

Terpene benefits are not just hearsay, they have medical studies and clinical trial supporting the therapeutic attributes they contain. As we see progress at illuminating cannabis prohibition, research will undoubtedly teach us much we have yet to discover about this widely misunderstood plant. For now, we know that terpenes all have medicinal and therapeutic properties with some having different properties and some having more than others. Here is a list of benefits from terpenes.
  • Anti-fungal
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anti-convulsant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Antitumor
  • Anti-diabetic
  • Anti-mutagenic
  • Anti-allergic
  • Anti-Cancer
  • Neuroprotectant
Terpenes not only offer these potential benefits and more, but they also hold a chance at providing boosted levels of these benefits when combined with the therapeutic attributes of cannabinoids. It’s believed that terpenes work in conjunction with cannabinoids to increase the effects of cannabis felt by a consumer. Because the effects of cannabis can be different from one person to the next, it’s hard to pinpoint combined benefits from terpenes and cannabinoids.

Researchers have uncovered some interesting things regarding cannabis terpenes. According to one study, cannabis terpenes alone, have the ability to mimic the effects a consumer feels from cannabinoids, such as a reduction in pain and inflammation. There’s also a clinical trial underway to study the analgesic and subjective effects of terpenes being conducted by the University of California, Los Angeles in collaboration with the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). The purpose of this clinical trial is to assess what the analgesic and subjective effects of terpenes are when administered alone and when combined with THC.

For more research to be conducted successfully, cannabis legalization needs to happen in more places so that quality cannabis can be tested during trial and studies. In many places, obtaining quality cannabis is a challenge for researchers.

Fun Facts About Terpenes​

  • Beta-caryophyllene is the only terpene known with the ability to bind to a cannabinoid receptor.
  • Beta-caryophyllene binds with CB2 receptors located throughout the body.
  • When properly stored, terpenes maintain flavor and aroma.
  • Terpenes are affected by the quality of the plant they come from.
  • Not all terpenes in cannabis are from cannabis. Some are botanical terpenes from other plants.
  • When you stop to smell the roses, or flowers of any kind for that matter, you're stopping to enjoy terpenes.
  • Currently, there are over 30,000 terpenes recorded on planet Earth.
  • The act of forest bathing involves breathing and meditating in terpene-rich forests at certain times of the day.

The Importance of Terpene Testing​

Terpene testing is an extremely important avenue when it comes to cannabis. Cannabis legalization has led to regulation regarding the safety and potency of cannabis. In places that have a legal market for adult use/retail cannabis or medical cannabis, certified lab testing is required for all cannabis products. Currently, most places have requirements in place for testing cannabinoid levels and for monitoring impurities such as feces and banned chemicals.

As of lately, many places are also adding terpene tests to their products. This is because consumers are starting to look for products that have high terpene levels as well as products with specific levels of terpenes. Understanding what terpenes taste and smell like can help you when it comes to purchasing cannabis. Cannabis should taste good and be effective. If there happens to be certain terpenes you like more than others, focus on finding strains that are rich in those terpenes.

Another great importance behind terpene testing is one that is least thought about, allergic reactions. Cannabis is rich in terpenes. So rich in fact that should you have an allergy or be allergic to a certain terpene and unknowingly ingested in cannabis you could experience very negative results. As an example, if someone is allergic to lavender, they most likely will have issues with varieties of cannabis rich in linalool. This means if testing was available, they want to avoid cannabis strains with this terpene in them. When testing is not available, it's a guessing game.

To begin to understand terpene degradation and how terpenes are destroyed and lost we must understand what happens when terpene degradation occurs. Just like cannabinoids, terpenes also have a boiling point. When certain temperatures are applied to terpenes, degradation begins. This can be very difficult to come up with any formulation as there are many different variances. Some people dip concentrates in terpenes before consuming them. This increases the amount of terpenes as well as the initial and level after degradation.

You must also factor in cannabis concentrates where terpenes are destroyed during the extraction process and replaced with botanical terpenes as a cheaper more consistent option. As you can see terpene testing is very important. Encourage lawmakers in your area as well as dispensary owners, growers, and processors to not only offer cannabis products that have standard testing but also offer terpene test results. If you experience unwanted effects from cannabis, you may be allergic or sensitive to certain terpenes.

How Terpenes Influence the Effect from Cannabis Consumption​

The ECS wasn’t really discovered until the late 1980’s. In 1988, the discovery of the mammalian endocannabinoid system or ECS for short, showed researchers thy uncovered the largest receptor system in the human body. Not only is the ECS the largest, but it’s also considered the master regulator of homeostasis for mammals.

The only terpene that’s known to actually bind with any cannabinoid receptor is beta-caryophyllene which binds with cb2 receptors found throughout the body. The effects that terpenes have on the ECS are still being discovered. It is believed that terpenes working conjunction with cannabinoids and our ECS to facilitate the Entourage effect. Terpenes like cannabinoids interact with the ECS via our bloodstream.

The Entourage effect would be an example of whole-plant cannabis such as smokable flower or full extraction cannabis oil AKA FECO oil that contain all of the plant's cannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, minerals, and aminos. It is believed that you cannot achieve the Entourage effect with cannabis isolates such as THC or CBD isolate. Because these varieties of extracts contain only one cannabinoid the possibility of them working together to achieve the Entourage effect isn't there.

Determining the effectiveness or exactly how the Entourage effect works once again is difficult because of the ability of cannabis to treat each person differently. Due to a person's chemical composition being unique, there are many different factors that can determine how effective cannabinoids and terpenes are on a person-to-person basis.

Terpenes can play a role in how lipids are released from cells in the body, which in return, could influence the absorption rate of cannabinoids by receptors. The endocannabinoid system helps regulate sleep, mood, motor control, appetite, reproduction, pain, pleasure, memory, temperature, and more. Terpenes themselves are known to help reduce anxiety, relieve inflammation, and more.

Just like different varieties of cannabis are relaxing while others are uplifting, terpenes are the same. They have the ability to help you feel energetic or sedated. They offer effects such as pain relief or sedation, terpenes can also be said to be mood-elevating. This would mean cannabis rich in terpenes, opposed to cannabis with a poor terpene profile, should be more effective.

The Boiling Point of Terpenes​

When people dab from a scorching hot banger or nail, they bring terpenes and cannabinoids to the boiling point. Temperatures above 300 degrees Fahrenheit or 148.9 degrees Celsius, start to cause terpene degradation. When terpenes evaporate, the smell and flavor are compromised losing some of the therapeutic attributes.

Just like cannabinoids have different boiling points, different terpenes have different boiling points too. Knowing these can come in handy if you dab or cook with cannabis. Let’s look at some of the common terpenes found in cannabis and look at information out some of the different boiling points of cannabis terpene below.
  • Myrcene 334°F or 167°C
  • Humulene 225°F or 107°C
  • Pinene 311°F or 155°C
  • Caryophyllene 266°F or 130°C
  • Linalool 390°F or 198°C
  • Limonene 349°F or 176°C
These temperatures are important to anyone who enjoys vaping smoking or dabbling in the culinary side of cannabis. Understanding the boiling points of terpenes can prevent damage from occurring to the flavor and aromatic profile. This in return can create a more satisfying vaping or smoking experience. It is exceptionally important when cooking with terpenes. If temperatures become too high and in essence, you just cook the terpenes away. If you're cooking with terpenes, remember to go slow and low.

Take your time and use low temperatures to avoid any kind of damage to get the most benefits from cooking with terpenes. When it comes to preventing the degradation of terpenes, you have to watch out for more than just high temperatures. Light can also be the destroyer of your terpene profiles. Blackout jars are great for the preservation of cannabinoids and terpenes. Be sure to store terpenes in a cool dark area that is free from excessive moisture. Cannabis is best stored inside glass storage containers because they are non-porous and for the most part airtight.

The Pros and Cons of Terpenes​

Terpenes can be good, and terpenes can be bad. It all depends on one of many different things. Factors such as whether or not you are sensitive or allergic to certain terpenes will obviously determine if you have a good or bad experience. As mentioned before, terpene testing is extremely important n helping to prevent any type of allergic or unwanted reactions from cannabis. In certain instances, people who are allergic to terpenes can find themselves in very real medical situations.

If you are allergic to certain plants or extremely sensitive to particular aromas, you will definitely want to familiarize yourself with the terpenes associated with those plants and smells. Once you have identified the dominant terpene, you can avoid it in cannabis. Many people who are allergic to Lavender wouldn't think twice about consuming cannabis rich in line a little unless they knew the potential dangers. Let's take a look at some pros cons of terpenes.

Pros​

  • Terpenes are known to offer a wide variety of therapeutic properties.
  • A good terpene profile often means quality cannabis. If plants are not grown and fed properly, it can harm terpene levels.
  • Terpenes are relatively safe for most people.
  • Specific terpenes can help determine the taste and smell of cannabis.

Cons​

  • Being unaware of a terpene you're sensitive or allergic to could have bad results when consuming cannabis.
  • Terpene testing is not offered on all cannabis products in all states.
  • If you are allergic to a specific terpene in nature such as roses or black pepper, chances are you will be allergic to those terpenes in cannabis.
  • Cannabis product containing botanical terpenes will not have the same effect as ones with cannabis terpenes.

Different Ways to Increase Terpenes in Cannabis​

Dipping concentrate in cannabis terpenes or terps on terps is one definite way to increase the amount of terpenes in your cannabis. In most states that have a legal market for cannabis, you can buy cannabis-derived terpenes. They usually go by the nickname terp sauce. These terpenes normally come in very small dark, amber-colored glass vials. When a concentrate is dipped inside of cannabis terpenes and consumed at the proper temperature, the effects are better from flavor to feeling. Dipping terpenes is only one way to increase terps. If you really want to get those terpene profiles to increase, there are a series of other things you can do.

Feeding your plants properly can greatly increase the terpene profile. This means using healthy soil and good nutrients on a schedule. Healthy soil is the life source for strong roots and a healthy cannabis plant. What you feed your plants and when you feed to them can help determine the overall terpene profile of your cannabis. Plans require more sugars during the flowering stage in particular the fourth week of flowering. If the sugar reserves in your plant are at optimal levels at this time it will help to increase terpene production.

Make sure that you have the right lighting and enough of it. Cannabis requires light and Water to grow. Too much, or too little of either, is a bad thing. Growing cannabis under different lights produces different results. Light manipulation plays a key factor in creating Frosty buds. When just the right amount of UVB rays are given to cannabis plants at the proper stage of growth, a boost in trichome production can occur. A lot of growers use LED lights that do not contain any type of UV light. This means they can lose trichomes. Many professional growers use a combination of MH along with an HPS sodium lamp during flowering to increase aroma and flavor by boosting the production of terpenes.

If you really want to increase the terpene profile of your cannabis plants, you're going to have to train them. That doesn't mean telling them to sit and stay. Training requires techniques such as bending, twisting, pinching, snapping, pruning, topping, and tying down cannabis plants. This might sound like you're abusing your ladies but trust me they love it. After the first two or three weeks of growth, cannabis plants should be ready for training. LST or low-stress training is best to start with. High-stress training such as super cropping can be beneficial but should be done well after the plant is established. It is important to monitor your training and stress techniques making sure that you don't overdo it. Too much stress can lead to poor results such as low yield, potency, taste, and aroma.

Make sure your temperature and humidity levels are correct. Cannabis plants are picky. They grow best in temperatures between 75 and 80°, although fluctuations are acceptable. When temperatures drop below 60°, it can harm the quality and quantity of bud produced by a plant. A 5° variance in temperature, either way, is considered acceptable meaning temperatures between 70 to 85°, are the safe zone.

If temperatures get too hot you run the risk of stressing your plants, as well as welcoming nuisances such as mold, mildew, and pests. During the veg stage of cannabis plants, the humidity should be between 50 and 65%. Higher humidity during this time is acceptable. As your plants begin to flower, you want to drop your humidity lower keeping it at a maximum of 50%. The lower you can keep the humidity levels during flowering, the better off you will be according to many growers.

Just like using the bathroom, don't forget to flush. About 2 weeks before you plan to harvest your cannabis plants, you will want to stop feeding them. You do this so that nutrients that have built up inside of buds can be used up. If you skip the step of flushing your plants, you run the risk of damaging your terpene profile.

Make sure you take your time and harvest your plants with care. Watching for signs that your plants are ready to harvest includes keeping an eye on resin production in trichomes. If you harvest too late you can lose flavor and smell. If you harvest too early your plants will not have had enough time to reach their full potential. Try to avoid handling your buds. Trichomes are very delicate and every time you touch your buds you are destroying trichomes.

After all of this don't cut corners and rush the drying and curing process. When you are drying cannabis make sure you have it in a cool dark place with good airflow and humidity around 45 to 55%. Light will destroy your terpenes. It causes terpene and cannabinoid degradation. Once the stems on your cannabis plants snap, usually within 8 to 10 days, your buds are ready to be cleaned up and cured. Making sure to cure your buds in airtight jars placed in dark cool environments will help you to get the best terpene level possible improving the flavor, and aroma of your cannabis.

Strong cannabis genetics are another way to help increase your overall terpene profile. People have been growing with bag seed for as long as cannabis has been around. There is however a difference between bag seed and quality cannabis genetics. Growing with bag seed doesn't always produce the best results. Some of the best cannabis comes from strong cannabis genetics. Strong cannabis genetics are stable and consistent. They require years of work in order to reach perfection.

If you take your time to follow the above-mentioned tips for increasing the terpene profile of your cannabis, you will also increase the quality of your bud. Terpenes are found in trichomes along with most of the resin in cannabis. Trichomes will not reach their full potential unless the cannabis is grown properly.

Understanding what cannabis terpenes are, can help you as a cannabis consumer. If you haven't been able to figure out why you don't like most cannabis Vapes or concentrates, chances are you're getting a hold to color remediated cannabis products that have botanical terpenes versus pure cannabis. Top-quality cannabis products are made using techniques such as dry shifting and ice water extraction.

These processes help preserve terpene profiles while concentrating cannabinoid levels. If you really want to taste a blast of cannabis terpenes, try a dab of some high-quality ice water extraction concentrates like badder or diamonds, or partake in some sweet ice water extraction temple ball hashish. When it comes to flower, small-batch craft cannabis flowered to perfection is where it's at, for the best terpene profiles in cannabis.

Conclusion​

Terpenes from cannabis versus terpenes from other plants play an interesting concept in cannabis products. Instead of cannabis being produced in quality, being rich in cannabinoids, and terpenes, a lot of it these days, is being grown in bulk and, grown poorly at that. Large quantities of very poor material are run through an extraction process. Once this process has removed THC, it is then placed through a process known as color remediation. During color remediation, cannabis extracts are cleaned having impurities such as chlorophyll, pesticides, and plant particles removed.

This process also destroys what little terpene profile this low-quality cannabis had. Not to worry though, here to save the day our lavender, basil, cinnamon clove, black pepper, roses, oranges, lemons, limes, mangoes, and more. All of these have terpenes that are commonly found in cannabis. Instead of putting cannabis-derived terpenes back into color remediated cannabis, it is much cheaper and more consistent to use botanical-derived terpenes. As you can see, all cannabis is not created equal especially when it comes to cannabis products such as concentrates, or foods.

The more someone understands terpenes and how to increase terpene profiles and cannabis, the better the quality of their end product. When it comes to selling cannabis on a retail market whether it is recreational or medicinal, retailers have different levels for the product. There is usually a top shelf, a middle shelf, and a bottom shelf. It is a very common thing to see top-shelf cannabis that should be on the bottom shelf. In some instances, rumors have it that people determine what strain goes on what shelf by how it smells.

The truth of the matter should be cannabis should be tested in order to determine what shelf it goes on. If you have a lack of trichome production, you're going to have a lack of resin. If you have an abundance of trichomes, you're going to have an abundance of resin and terpenes making your product tastier and more potent. This is the type of product that should be on the top shelf not what we see in many places. Without a good understanding of terpenes, what they are, how they work, and how to increase terpenes in cannabis, cultivators of cannabis are just producing swag. If you want to take your cannabis cultivation to the next level, make sure you are very familiar with cannabis terpenes.
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