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Although much is known about the proteins and processes within the plant cell required for efficient virus transmission, up to now, little was known about the requirements and mechanisms from the insect point of view. In this issue of PNAS, Uzest et al. (1) tackle that problem and trace the receptor for the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) movement protein to a protein imbedded into the chitin matrix at the tip of the stylet of the aphid vector.
In terms of epidemiology, insects are the most important factors in plant virus disease. Approximately 80% of the plant viruses depend on insect vectors for transmission (other vectors can be nematodes and fungi), and the plant virus vector interactions are very specific. Thus, the recent spreading of begomoviruses throughout America might be caused by the introduction of the old world vector Bemisia tabaci. This spreading might have provided the opportunity of preexisting viruses to be transmitted to a variety of crop plants (2).
Plant viruses can be transmitted by insects in various ways. These have been classified as nonpersistent, semipersistent, and persistent, depending on the length of the period the vector can harbor infectious particles, which can range from minutes to hours (nonpersistent) to days (semipersistent) and to live-time and even inheritance by the insect progeny (persistent). Another classification distinguishes stylet-borne, foregut-borne, and circulative transmission, usually corresponding to non-, semi-, and full persistence. In circulative transmission, viruses move from the foregut further to the mid- and hindgut, from where they are transported to the hemolymph and further to the salivary gland, from where they are released into the plant tissue during feeding. In some cases, plant viruses are further replicated in the insect hemolymph, e.g., reoviruses in leaf hoppers (3), and these viruses can therefore also be considered doubly as plant and as insect viruses.
An example of circulative (nonreplicative) transmission is given by the begomo geminiviruses, which are transmitted by whiteflies, e.g., B. tabaci. Interestingly, this transmission involves a third partner, namely insect-symbiontic bacteria. These produce a chaperonin: “symbiontin,” also known as GroEl protein (4). Symbiontin binds to the viral capsid and is required to pass the midgut/hemolymph barrier and to stabilize the virion (5, 6). Interestingly, when introduced into plant cells, symbiontin can inhibit virus replication, presumably by inhibiting the nucleic acid release or the cell-to-cell transport (7). Geminiviruses have no special insect transmission factor (or “helper component”). All properties required for geminivirus transmission, including groel interaction, rely on the viral capsid protein.
In contrast, the caulimoviruses (type member CaMV) with icosahedral symmetry are transmitted semipersistently by aphids, such as Mycus persicae. For CaMV transmission, three proteins have been shown to be required (Fig. 1), the viral capsid protein (GAG), the loosely bound virion associated protein (VAP), and the aphid transmission factor (ATF; ref. 8). VAP forms a network around the virion with its C terminus anchored in the inner shell (9) and the N-terminal extremity facing out of the capsid, forming dimers by coiled-coil interactions (10). In addition to the movement protein (MOV), GAG and VAP and are also required for cell-to-cell movement (11).
Schematic representation of the tip of the aphid stylet showing uptake and release of CaMV particles. The aphid transmission factor (ATF, P2) is taken up by the insect and binds specifically to a specific nongycosylated protein imbedded in chitin matrix (more ...)
The ATF can be taken up by the insect independently from virus particles, and insects prefed with ATF can subsequently transmit ATF-defective viruses. It was suggested that independent uptake is the norm and, interestingly, virions including VAP and ITF accumulate in different inclusion bodies within the infected plant cell, allowing the separate uptake (12). Such a mode of transmission can support multiple virus uptake and lead to recombinant viruses in the next progeny.
But what happens during virus uptake by the insect vector? Uzest et al. (1) found, by imaging using GVP-fused ATF and microscopy, that ATF binds to the very tip of the maxillary stylet (Fig. 1). The interaction does not occur with aphids that are not vectors for the virus or with mutated ATF incapable of transmitting CaMV. The authors also showed that semipersistent virus transmission is not connected to foregut-borne transmission. Furthermore, the authors gave first indications to the nature of the receptor. It is stable to trypsin, pronase E, and subtilisin, but pretreatment with proteinase K abolishes the activity, suggesting that it is nonglycosylated proteinaceous and partly protected by deep imbedding into the chitin matrix of the cuticulum. Furthermore, EM studies reveal that virus particles accumulate within the stylet coinciding with the location of the ATF receptor.
The work will provide the basis for further interesting research to answer questions such as: what regulates binding vs. release of the virus particles, whether the release is spontaneous or caused by properties of the medium flowing through the stylet, such as plant sap vs. saliva and their pH values, or whether the release is even coupled to degradation of one of the proteins involved in virion binding. Are the virions released by loosening the interaction between cuticulum-anchored protein and ATF, ATF and VAP, or even VAP and virion (Fig. 1)? The present findings will certainly be relevant for interfering with plant virus epidemics through targeting the transmission.

The author declares no conflict of interest.
See companion article on page 17959.
Uzest M, Gargani D, Drucker M, Hébrard E, Garzo E, Candresse T, Fereres A, Blanc S. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007;104:17959–17964. [PubMed]
Power AG. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2000;3:336–340. [PubMed]
Black LM. Curr Top Vector Res. 2007;2:1–30.
Banerjee S, Hess D, Majumder P, Roy D, Das S. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23782–23789. [PubMed]
Morin S, Ghanim M, Zeidan M, Czosnek H, Verbeek M, van den Heuvel JF. Virology. 1999;256:75–84. [PubMed]
Hogenhout SA, van der WF, Verbeek M, Goldbach RW, van den Heuvel JF. J Virol. 2000;74:4541–4548. [PubMed]
Akad F, Eybishtz A, Edelbaum D, Gorovits R, Dar-Issa O, Iraki N, Czosnek H. Arch Virol. 2007;152:1323–1339. [PubMed]
Hebrard E, Drucker M, Leclerc D, Hohn T, Uzest M, Froissart R, Strub JM, Sanglier S, van Dorsselaer A, Padilla A, et al. J Virol. 2001;75:8538–8546. [PubMed]
Leclerc D, Stavolone L, Meier E, Guerra-Peraza O, Herzog E, Hohn T. Virus Genes. 2001;22:159–165. [PubMed]
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(1) Mechanical or sap

(2) Vegetative propagation

(3) Insects

(4) Nematodes

(5) Pollen and seed

(6) Fungi and dodder
[1) Mechanical or sap ]

Sap Transmission.
The mechanical transmission of plant viruses by direct transfer of sap from plant to plant by contact in nature is unimportant. One exception to this seems to be potato virus X (PVX) in potato. Transmission of PVX through sap inoculation is readily accomplished by the contact of leaves in the field due to wind or machinery.

Sap Transmission.
Tomato mosaic virus is also readily sap transmissible in the field when sap is accidentally transferred from infected tomato plants to other tomato plants on tools, hands, clothes or machinery. The ability of these viruses to be spread by sap in the field is due to their extreme stability.
Sap Transmission.
Sap or mechanical transmission is most important in the study of plant viruses in vitro, since all investigations outside of the natural host require the ability to demonstrate and measure infectivity of the agent. The cotyledons of cucumber seedlings have been inoculated with sap from plants suspected of being infected with tomato ringspot virus.

Sap Transmission.
When a homogenate of infected tissue or purified virus is gently rubbed onto the leaf surface of an appropriate herbaceous host, many viruses will produce symptoms on the inoculated leaves in 1 to 3 weeks. Note the necrotic lesions produced on Chenopodium amaranticolor by wineberry latent virus after 20 days.

[2) Vegetative propagation]

Vegetative Propagation.
Viruses present in a mother plant from which tubers, corms, bulbs, rhizomes, cuttings, bud wood or other tissue explants are taken will almost always be transmitted to their progeny. A meristem, as pictured here, may be a source of virus-free plants through meristem culture.

Transmission by Tubers.

Potatoes are propagated by tubers, and many important viruses are transmitted via potato seed pieces. Virus symptoms may be seen on the tubers as in the case of tobacco rattle virus.

Transmission by Tubers.

More frequently, symptoms of virus infection are not evident until the plant produces shoots and leaves. Leafroll symptoms are evident in plants established with potato leafroll virus-infected tubers.

Graft Transmission.
Most fruit trees are propagated by budding or grafting. Virus transmission through the use of virus-infected bud wood or rootstocks is important. In apple, tomato ringspot virus may become established in an orchard through the use of infected rootstock. A line of dead tissue can be seen at the union between rootstock and scion of an infected, debarked apple tree.

Natural Graft Transmission.
In orchard and forest environments, tree roots spread widely and often form natural root grafts. These natural grafts may transmit viruses as in the case of Tulare apple mosaic virus in apple.

[3) Insects]
Insect Transmission.
Insects are the most common and economically important means by which viruses are spread in the field. Only a relatively few groups of insects can transmit viruses including aphids, leafhoppers, whiteflies, thrips, beetles, and mealybugs.

Aphid Transmission.
Aphids are the most important vector of plant viruses and transmit 242 viruses or 66% of those viruses that have invertebrate vectors. During the life of an aphid both winged and wingless forms develop. The winged forms allow the vector to move from field to field and plant to plant rapidly; the wingless form colonizes the plant.

Raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola.

Aphid Transmission.
Aphids are members of the order Homoptera. They have piercing and sucking mouthparts and carry plant viruses on their stylets or accumulate viruses within their body and pass the virus back to the plant via saliva during the feeding process. SEM of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.
Leafhopper Transmission.
Leafhoppers are also members of the order Homoptera and are known to transmit approximately 16 important plant viruses. Leafhopper-transmitted viruses are restricted to the phloem of the plant and all are maintained within the insect's body and transmitted via saliva.

Whitefly Transmission.
Whiteflies are known to transmit about 70 disease agents, mainly of tropical and subtropical plants. Many of the agents have not been characterized. The most studied vector is Bemisia tabaci, pictured here, which is a phloem feeder. The most important group of whitefly-transmitted viruses is the geminiviruses.

Thrips Transmission.
Thrips are very small in size compared to aphids or leafhoppers, but are important as vectors primarily because of their ability to transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) which has one of the widest host ranges of any known plant virus. Larvae are rather inactive but adults are winged and active. Thrips feed by sucking the contents of subepidermal cells of a host plant.

Beetle Transmission.
Four groups of isometric viruses are known to be transmitted by beetles. These viruses are usually quite stable and present in high concentrations within infected tissues. Beetle vectors acquire virus quickly by chewing on infected leaf tissue. The virus can be transmitted with the first bite. Transmission occurs when the beetles regurgitate sap and virus onto feeding wounds.

Mealybug Transmission.
Mealybugs are much less mobile on plants than other groups of vectors, making them relatively inefficient virus vectors. Mealybugs feed only on the phloem; the virus is carried on or near the stylets. Nymphs move more readily than adults and crawl from plant to plant over their surfaces.
[4) Nematodes]
Nematode Transmission.
Approximately a dozen widespread and important viruses have been shown to be transmitted via soil by nematodes. Three genera of nematodes of the order Dorylaimida are known to transmit plant viruses, Xiphinema, Logidorus, and Trichodorus. Dagger nematode, Xiphinema, feeding at a root tip with stylet.

Xiphinema Transmission.

Xiphinema spp. are long and slender and are vectors of polyhedral-shaped NEPOviruses such as grape fanleaf virus, tobacco ringspot virus, tomato ringspot virus, cherry leafroll and other viruses. The virus is acquired within 15 to 60 minutes and can be retained in the nematode's gut for up to a year. Xiphinema spp. prefer to feed on woody species such as grape and peach.

Longidorus Transmission.

Longidorus spp. are also long and slender and vectors of polyhedral-shaped NEPOviruses such as raspberry ringspot virus and tomato black ring virus. Longidorus spp. prefer to feed on herbaceous perennial hosts. Nematode vectors feed on cells at root tips with their stylet, acquiring virus. The virus is retained within the esophagus and/or gut and transmitted when the nematode feeds again.

Trichodorus Transmission.

Trichodorus spp. are short and plump nematodes and vectors of short, tubular-shaped TOBRAviruses such as tobacco rattle virus and pea early browning virus. Trichodorus may remain infective for as long as 2 years after acquiring virus from infected plants.

[5) Pollen and seed]

Pollen Transmission.
When a virus is transmitted by pollen, it may infect the seed and the seedling that will grow from that seed, or it may infect the plant through the fertilized flower. The plant-to-plant transmission of virus by pollen is known to occur in fruit trees such as sour cherry. ILARviruses are commonly transmitted by pollen. Note ornamented pollen grains at center of image.

Seed Transmission.
A number of important virus diseases are known to be seed-transmitted. Seed transmission results in the earliest possible infection of the young seedling. This often results in increased severity of the virus infection. Pea seedborne mosaic virus has been disseminated worldwide in infected seed. The split seed coat symptom seen here is diagnostic for infection by this virus.

[6) Fungi and Dodder]
Fungal Transmission.
A few virus diseases are transmitted by soilborne fungi or fungallike organisms. Polymyxa graminis is the vector of several economically important viruses of wheat such as wheat soilborne mosaic virus and wheat spindle streak mosaic virus. Masses of resting spores can be seen in the root cells above.

Dodder Transmission.
Dodder (Cuscuta spp.) is a yellowish, vine-like parasitic plant. A number of species of dodder transmit viruses. The parasite forms haustoria which penetrate the host. The dodder acts as a continuous cytoplasmic strand through which virus may move to other susceptible plants. Virus transmission by dodder in nature is not of economic importance.


How are viruses transmitted?
Some important animal and human viruses can be spread through aerosols. The viruses have the "machinery" to enter the animal cells directly by fusing with the cell membrane (e.g. in the nasal lining or gut).

By contrast, plant cells have a robust cell wall and viruses cannot penetrate them unaided. Most plant viruses are therefore transmitted by a vector organism that feeds on the plant or (in some diseases) are introduced through wounds made, for example, during cultural operations (e.g. pruning). A small number of viruses can be transmitted through pollen to the seed (e.g. Barley stripe mosaic virus, genus Hordeivirus) while many that cause systemic infections accumulate in vegetatively-propagated crops. The major vectors of plant viruses are:

Insects. This forms the largest and most significant vector group and particularly includes:
Aphids: transmit viruses from many different genera, including Potyvirus, Cucumovirus and Luteovirus.The picture shows the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, the vector of many plant viruses, including Potato virus Y. (Figure from Nuessly & Webb, Insect Management for Leafy Vegetables, ENY-475, September 2003, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS)).

Whiteflies: transmit viruses from several genera but particularly those in the genus Begomovirus. The picture shows Bemisia tabaci, the vector of many viruses including Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Lettuce infectious yellows virus. (Figure from Description 369).

Hoppers: transmit viruses from several genera, including those in the families Rhabdoviridae and Reoviridae. The picture shows Micrutalis malleifera, the treehopper vector of Tomato pseudo-curly top virus. (Figure from Description 395).

Thrips: transmit viruses in the genus Tospovirus. The picture shows Frankinella occidentalis, the western flower thrips that is a major vector of Tomato spotted wilt virus..

Beetles: transmit viruses from several genera, including Comovirus and Sobemovirus
The virus-vector relationships are of several types:

At one extreme, the association occurs within the feeding apparatus of the insect, where the virus can be rapidly adsorbed and then released into a different plant cell. The feeding insect looses the virus rapidly when feeding on a non-infected plant. Such a relationship is termed "non-persistent". The best studied examples are of potyvirus transmission by aphids.
At the other extreme, the virus is taken up into the vector, circulates within the vector body and is released through the salivary glands. The vector needs to feed on an infected plant for much longer and there is an interval (perhaps several hours) before it can transmit. Once it becomes viruliferous, the vector will remain so for many days and such a relationship is therefore termed "persistent" or "circulative". The best studied examples are of luteovirus transmission by aphids. In some examples of this type (e.g. some hoppers and thrips), the virus multiplies within the vector and this is termed "propagative".
Nematodes: these are root-feeding parasites, some of which transmit viruses in the genera Nepovirus and Tobravirus. The picture shows an adult female of Paratrichodorus pachydermus, the vector of Tobacco rattle virus. (Figure from Description 398, courtesy of the Scottish Crop Research Station).

Plasmodiophorids: these are root-infecting obligate parasites traditionally regarded as fungi but now known to be more closely related to protists. They transmit viruses in the genera Benyvirus, Bymovirus, Furovirus, Pecluvirus and Pomovirus. The picture shows Polymyxa graminis, the vector of several cereal viruses including Barley yellow mosaic virus, growing within a barley root cell. (Figure from Description 374).

Mites: these transmit viruses in the genera Rymovirus and Tritimovirus. The picture shows Aceria tosichella, the vector of Wheat streak mosaic virus. (Figure from Description 393; bar represents 10 µm).

bicycle racer

does anyone now if and infected plant will transmit the disease to its seeds? i know some og kush clones sometimes have it i have a rose bush with a typical yellow mosaic pattern but it seems its not spread yet. i know that if i was to physically touch the infected plant that its not hard to spread. i would think colloidal silver would kill it at least on surfaces as it will kill even very strong viruses i have not tested this personally but read silver will kill tmv. i have seen farmers drenching plants with milk to stop the spread between infected plants and also washing hands with milk i dont know the exact mechanism of how that works but would like to know if anyone does.


Certain viruses can infect seed coats(TMV does with cannabis) and can then further infect the germinating seedling. Milk is a potent ant-fungal, and commercial rose growers the world over use it as such. It is possible for the vectoring of Viruses through bacteria, and fungi, though its not common. If a plant were to become infected through a fungi vector it would not matter if you killed the fungi(the initial host) because the virus would already have made a new host of said plant. A milk/water drench, at a ratio of 1/10 for PM works like a charm, but if used to stop viral cross contamination it would (if anything) just help spread the TMV infection through the plants.

bicycle racer

i will try to find the link about the milk inhibiting tmv spreading i knew it killed powdery mildew by raising ph of the leaf surface. but dont know how it directly affects tmv spreading. as far as seeds i wonder if h202 colodial silver or alcohol could be used to disinfect seeds or clones. i think the silver is promising as it will kill tmv from what i have read.

bicycle racer

so basically fat free skim milk is used to wash hands and soak tools by the agricultural industry it is one of the most safe and effective ways to stop tmv spreading. the tmv virus is unusual in that it binds to milk protein rendering it inactive.


bicycle rider, very interesting. I discovered this paper searching for info about what you wrote in your post. I ended up finding the most helpful plant virus report I've ever read. Tottaly a jackpot of info for the TMV/ToMV/CMV. Thanx

Common Mosaic and Cucumber Mosaic Pathogens. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the closely related tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) cause common mosaic; cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes cucumber mosaic. Both diseases cause stunting of the plants and a lowering of yield. For both diseases, symptoms can vary widely, depending on the age of the plant, the variety of tomato, the strain of the virus causing the disease, and the environmental conditions.
TMV is a worldwide pathogen and one of the first plant viruses that scientists described. It has been important in Europe since the mid-1800s. In the United States, it was first reported in Connecticut on tobacco in 1899 and on tomato in 1909. It has a very wide range of hosts, including tomato and the related plants of eggplant, nightshade weeds, pepper, potato, and tobacco. TMV is seen on apple, beet, sugar beet, buckwheat, currant, grape, pear, spinach and turnip, as well. In addition, ornamentals, foxglove, phlox, snapdragon and zinnia, and weeds of the amaranth and goosefoot families are affected.
CMV is another widespread virus. It was first reported in the 1900's in several places in North America. It is now considered to be worldwide. It has an very wide host range, which includes tomato, carrot, celery, cucurbits, legumes, lettuce, spinach, pepper, dahlia, delphinium, columbine, geranium, petunia, phlox, zinnia and viola, and many weeds, such as chickweed, pokeweed and milkweed.
Symptoms. Common mosaic (TMV/ToMV) often causes leaves to be stunted or elongated, in a condition called "fernleaf." This name is due to the strong resemblance of these leaves to leaves of many kinds of ferns. The youngest leaves may be curled. Leaves may be mottled yellow and dark green. This is the symptom which gives the disease the name "mosaic." The dark green areas may be raised. Mottling usually occurs most severely on plants grown under low light and low temperature, conditions which may exist in a greenhouse during the winter. Leaf stunting and distortion are usually worse under these conditions, as well.
Stem streaking occasionally occurs with dark streaks that are either sparse and short or prevalent and long. Such stems are easily broken and have brown areas inside. Fruit is rarely affected. It may be mottled or a brownish bronze color inside, which can be seen through the thin skin of the fruit. Fruit may show uneven ripening or yellow rings, as well.
Severe strains of TMV/ToMV cause the lower leaves to turn downward at the petiole, become rough and crinkled or corrugated, and possibly cause the leaflets to curl downward at the edges. Younger leaves may have extensive yellow to white areas with dark green blisters.
When some tomato varieties are infected with TMV/ToMV and kept at high temperature conditions (80o to 85o F) for a prolonged time, they develop dead areas on leaves, stems and roots.
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes plants to become yellow, bushy and very stunted. Leaves may be extremely distorted and malformed. Leaflets are often very narrowed; this is called "shoestring". Often the leaves on one portion of the plant (e.g., the top or the bottom) show severe symptoms, while those higher or lower in the plant are less affected. Other leaf symptoms include a yellow and green mottling similar to tobacco mosaic symptoms. Severely affected plants produce few fruit.
Identification of the Diseases. It is difficult to diagnose which virus is present without the assistance of an experienced diagnostician. The fernleaf and the shoestring symptoms are very similar, and the mosaic symptoms are indistinguishable. Control and prevention measures are very different for the two diseases, so accurate diagnosis is important.
Prevention. TMV is spread readily by touch. The virus can survive on clothing in bits of plant debris for about two years, and can easily enter a new plant from a brief contact with a worker's contaminated hands or clothing. Tobacco products can carry the virus, and it can survive on the hands for hours after touching the tobacco product. Ensure that workers do not carry or use tobacco products near the plants, and wash well (with soap to kill the virus) after using tobacco products. Ensure that workers wear clothing not contaminated with tomato, tobacco or other host-plant material. Exclude non-essential people from greenhouses and growing areas.
Choose resistant varieties. Use disease-free seed and transplants, preferably certified ones. Avoid the use of freshly harvested seed (2 years old is best if non-certified seed is used). Seed treatment with heat (2 to 4 days at 158o F using dry seed) or trisodium phosphate (10% solution for 15 minutes) has been shown to kill the virus on the outside of the seed and, often, most of the virus inside the seed as well. Care must be taken to not kill the seeds, though. Use a two-year rotation away from susceptible species. In greenhouses, it is best to use fresh soil, as steaming soil is not 100% effective in killing the virus. If soil is to be steamed, remove all parts of the plant from the soil, including roots. Carefully clean all plant growing equipment and all greenhouse structures that come into contact with plants.

When working with plants, especially when picking out seedlings or transplanting, spray larger plants with a skim milk solution or a solution made of reconstituted powdered or condensed milk. Frequently dip hands, but not seedlings, into the milk. Wash hands frequently with soap while working with plants, using special care to clean out under nails. Rinse well after washing. Tools should be washed thoroughly, soaked for 30 minutes in 3% trisodium phosphate and not rinsed..

Another method for control of this disease is to artificially inoculate plants with a weak strain of the virus. This will not cause symptoms on the plants but protect them against disease-causing strains of the virus. This is used commonly in Europe, but strains of the virus are not yet available in the United States due to concerns about the possibility of the weak virus strains causing disease on the plants.
Cucumber mosaic is spread in a nonpersistant manner by aphids. It is not spread by seed. Control weeds, many of which are host species. Surrounding tomato fields with a taller, non-susceptible plant, such as corn, may help shield the plants from aphids blowing in from other areas. See current recommendations for control of aphids, although it is generally considered that insecticides will not control this disease. The aphids pick the virus up from the plants in about a minute and are able to spread it immediately. Insecticides take longer than this to kill the aphids. Mineral oil sprays can be used to prevent the virus from being transmitted.
At this time there are no tomato varieties resistant to CMV.
By Pamela S. Mercure, IPM Program Assistant, University of Connecticut, 1998

Sherf, A.F. and A. A. MacNab. 1986. Vegetable Diseases and Their Control. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Zitter, T.A. 1991. Cucumber Mosaic in Compendium of Tomato Diseases. APS Press. St. Paul, MN. pp. 35-36. J.B. Jones; J. P. Jones; R.E. Stall; T. A. Zitter, eds.

Zitter, T.A. 1991. Tomato Mosaic and Tobacco Mosaic in Compendium of Tomato Diseases. APS Press. St. Paul, MN. p39. J.B. Jones; J. P. Jones; R.E. Stall; T. A. Zitter, eds.

The information in this material is for educational purposes. The recommendations contained are based on the best available knowledge at the time of printing. Any reference to commercial products, trade or brand names is for information only, and no endorsement or approval is intended. The Cooperative Extension system does not guarantee or warrant the standard of any product referenced or imply approval of the product to the exclusion of others which also may be available.All agrochemicals/pesticides listed are registered for suggested uses in accordance with federal and Connecticut state laws and regulations as of the date of printing. If the information does not agree with current labeling, follow the label instructions. The label is the law.Warning! Agrochemicals/pesticides are dangerous. Read and follow all instructions and safety precautions on labels. Carefully handle and store agrochemicals/pesticides in originally labeled containers immediately in a safe manner and place. Contact the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection for current regulations.The user of this information assumes all risks for personal injury or property damage.Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Kirklyn M. Kerr, Director, Cooperative Extension System, The University of Connecticut, Storrs. The Connecticut Cooperative Extension System offers its programs to persons regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age or disability and is an equal opportunity employer.

bicycle racer

the vaccine type of approach they use in europe seems like an effective method of control.


Mizz any of those links plz...i'm very intrested in TMV..I've been reseaching it for a while now...Post 23 is Spot on...very good information there...well all of the post actually


hey BR~knew I'd see someone i knew here :420:

still having TMV probs with the LL? so far so good with my girls. peace

bicycle racer

hows it going pinkus yeah im on the farmer because of the strain and breeding info useful sight. well i was dealing with this virus on a larry a few months ago. now im growing out seeds from the female lemon larry that i think had one of the mosaic viruses(leaf curl some odd yellow patterns) it was pollinated with a forced fem pre98 bubba kush so im hoping the seeds from the larry dont have the virus as well the resulting plants are 8 inches now and show no symptoms of any kind. so i think there virus free. a rose bush in my yard has it pretty bad i stay away from it and so far neither myself or insects have transmitted it to my plants.


Hey BR, very cool. I was reading the thread and noticed a posted artical that said it was possible for the TMV to be passed through the pollen~mea culpa bro

I Like the THC farm ALOT. Sonic's Pinequeen haze (plus about 20 others) will keep me coming back to the thcBAY and the breeder's forums are really nice too.




A virus has got into my last 12 crops somehow, seems to be reinfecting despite total replacement of all equipment and scrupulous hygiene. I suspect it is in the fabric of the house and being dragged in by the extractor.

any suggestions?
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